Natural Resources - Relief and Ground
The relief of Kelmendi Commune is very diverse. Because of their geological construction, height of relief curve, climate and vegetation, kinds of relief present big contrasts. The mountains occupy 59.7 % of the territory where several peaks reach over 2000 m, while the valleys occupy 40.3 %. Four are the main valleys: Vermoshi and Lepusha, with an average height of 1134 m above sea level and the valley of Cem of Selca and the one of Cem of Vukli with a height of 700 m above sea level.
45 from 100 nominated mountain peaks of the area reaches the height of over 2000 m above the sea level.
The region's structural relief consists of karstic, glacier, and rivers. The karstics are noted in more than 100 caves such as the Tartashica-s in Vukel, Gjaktza in Nike, Tamare etc. There are many karstic wells in Vrijela in Selca, Oberreti in Tamare etc. The glacier landscape appears 1500 m above the sea level, where the Vermosh valley and Lepusha are typical. The rivery landscape appears in the erosive valleys of Cem River, creating beautiful waterfalls.
These relief elements make up a geographical show-case which can give tourists, alpinists, speleologist, skiers, geo-morphologists, biologists etc great delight.
From the geological point of view, Kelmendi ground belongs to two tectonic areas of Northern Albanides, the area of Gashi and that of the Alps. The area of Gashi includes Vermoshi sub area (Seferçe alpine-lands and Trojani Mountain). The sandy, carbonatic rocky-flat-layers limited by Vermoshi Peg toward Boja peak are considered as the oldest mountain rocks, rocks of Permian age, 225 million years old.
Its structure is monocline but the scaling construction of Harusha Stream and Smutiroga aipine-land, can be noticed.
The sub-area of Malesi e Madhe and that of Valbona, which occupy 93% of the commune surface, are included in the Alps area. Rocks are of sedimentary origin and pertain to Mesozoic. Soil and parceled rocks, which came up over the surface of water, accompanied by a variety of fauna and plants as: Litiotis, Jurassic Anullata Clyperina, Dinarica Pianella etc.
During paleogenic period, structures were consolidated, ill-shaping speeded up and Vermoshi shale deposited. It definitely came up over the surface of water during Eocene. The Cursted Alpine-Lands underwent the most powerful tectonic rise at the time of plioquaternar. The quaternary period is represented by Vermoshi Glacial Valley, characterized by hundreds of 1400-meter-high cirques, river terraces, typical fallings etc.
These rocks have conditioned well-known clayey-boksitic, polymetal, phosphor, mercury, coal, marble, dolomites etc. mineral resource signs.
The composite of the ground varies. There is brown mountainous ground, which could be found from 200 to 1000m above the sea level and comprise 59 % of the agricultural land. It is used to cultivate cereals, potatoes, beans, vegetables, fruit trees and forage corps. There also grow different kinds of bushes and ashes. This kind of ground could be found in the Cemi's basin. There also is dark gray forest ground, which could be found from 800 to 1200 m above the sea level. It has a layer of humus, which goes from 15 to 60 cm. It is more usual in the Cemi's basin and Vermosh. Pastures, which have a different composite of the ground, could be found 1500m above the sea level and higher, in the zones of Seferca and Vileza.